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Batteries mAh may vary +/- 20% from from the specifications stated. A lot of the batteries vary in mAh depending on the supplier and when we receive the stock, the older stock generally carries a higher stated mAh value. This is similar to what Coca-Cola did a few years ago, instead of increasing the price of the product they reduced the quantity supplied.
LED/LCD SCREEN CARE (Light Emitting Diode/Liquid Crystal Display)
LED/LCD screen panels of a laptop are made of extremely thin glass making them one of the most fragile and expensive components. All parts relating to LED/LCD screen panels can easily be damaged due to ageing which results in a high fault rate.
Colour Deviation Heavy usage of the screen will cause colour deviation and the image to appear dim on the display and the areas near the backlight may become red in colour. Instability in the power supply to the screen from the LCD inverter will directly affect the quality of the display.
Dead and Stuck Pixels
A “Dead Pixel” is a defective pixel that remains unlit. Dead pixels are usually best detected against a clear white background where it will appear as a red, green, blue, cyan, magenta or yellow dot, although red, green or blue pixels are the most common. A “Stuck Pixel” results from a manufacturing defect which will leave one or more of these sub-pixels to remain permanently on or off. This issue arises most often due to ageing or poor quality LCD screens. It is important to be aware that images can become “burned” into an LCD screen if left displayed for an extended or considerable period of time without use or a screen saver which can cause “Dead” or “Stuck” pixels.
LCDs are very easily damaged due to many varying human factors. Cracks in an LCD screen will cause pixels to display abnormally, which is most commonly caused by severe impact or pressure on the screen itself. LCD screens are extremely delicate, fragile devices and as such need to be handled with the utmost care
Pressure on LCD screens
Never place anything heavy on the back of an LCD screen and never press too hard on the LCD screen otherwise permanent damage may be caused to the pixels in the affected area as the screen’s surface is not designed to be touched.
Never expose LCD screen panels to direct sunlight or excessive heat will damage your screen irreparably. Always ensure that LCD screen panels are kept in a cool, dry and well ventilated area. Also never use the LCD screen in snow or sub-zero temperatures which can also cause permanent damage to the pixels.
Always make sure that the laptop is correctly switched off with the battery removed and the AC adaptor unplugged before cleaning your screen. Never use alcohol, detergents or even mild soap to clean your screen and never spray or pour any liquid directly onto the screen. Be sure to use a very soft, micro-fibre cloth that is non-abrasive, 100% cotton, lint free and slightly damp with a little distilled water and gently wipe the screen, it is even more effective to use a small amount of spirit vinegar when cleaning your LCD screen. Laptop Accessories now stock specialised LCD cleaning kits, ask one of our professional sales consultants for more details.
It can be very difficult to detect a tiny “Dead” or “Stuck” pixel on the screen panel with the naked eye, however, using specialised software, DPT 2.30C, will help you in finding them. This software performs a series of tests in black, white, red, green, blue, yellow and grey up to 16 colours making it easier for the user to easily identify any “Dead” or “Stuck” pixels that may be present on the screen. When a “Dead” or “Stuck” pixel is found, the user can attempt to restore the pixel(s) by using an online service called JSCREENFIX. Basically, it performs a series of rapid and repeat resonance actions to stimulate and try to recover from the “Dead” or “Stuck” pixel(s), although there is no guarantee of recovery, it is definitely worth a try as it is a free service. Software: DPT 2.30C OS Support: WINDOWS XP/VISTA File Size: 222KB License: Freeware Download Link: http://www.dataproductservices.com/dpt
COST OF REPAIR
Part swop out from R600 Screen replacement from R800
HARD DRIVE CARE
Hard disc drives seem very tough and firm from the external view but internally, the disc inside the hard drive is actually extremely fragile and very easily damaged by the slightest physical impact especially when the system is still operating. It is highly recommended that you shut down the machine before removing the hard drive.
Natural wear and tear of the disc causes irregular rpm, readable head and/or magnetic head deformation and can also result in scratches being made on the surface of the disk which may cause the disc to become unreadable.
Unrecognised Battery Ageing of the PCD or moisture on the PCD of the hard disc drive can cause damage to the integrated circuit board (ICB) which will obstruct the flow of current to and through the device. When a hard drive cannot be detected by the laptop or the drive is incurring data, the user is urged to submit the drive to a technical specialist for repair. Qualified technicians will generally use data recovery software and try to physically recover data from the damaged hard drive. If the situation is critical, the drive will be sent to a certified 100% dust-free laboratory where it will be connected to a specific machine to read the data directly off the disc. After the data has been successfully recovered and captured from the damaged disc the user is urged to replace the damaged drive with a new replacement as soon as possible.
Use “HDD Regenerator” to check the condition of a hard drive. This software is designed to check not only for physical damage to the disc but also tries to repair the surface of the disc which will regenerate any bad sectors. It also helps to prevent data loss from the drive during restoration time. Software: HDD Regenerator 1.61 OS Support: WINDOWS XP/VISTA File Size: 6.81MB License: USD$59.95 Download Link: http://www.dposoft.net
COST OF REPAIR
Data recovery from R600 Hard Drive replacement from R600 Process in dust-free laboratory from R7000
Li-Ion cells in rechargeable batteries have a limited lifespan. If you frequently get a “Low Battery” warning or are unable to get the battery charged to 100% these are indications that the battery may have suffered some damage. Improper usage of the battery would result in these problems arising more easily.
Reduced Operating Time
The battery pack could be reaching the end of its lifespan if it has been recharged about 500 to 800 times or if it has been left in the charging state for a lengthy period of time.
Unable to charge normally
If the PCB inside the battery is not functioning correctly it will be unable to send the necessary signals commanding the battery to be charged normally. Before processing the battery for repair, the technician must firstly examine the unit to determine the problem and decide whether to replace the cells or the PCB and charge it accordingly, either way, the user may still need to purchase a new replacement battery if the damaged one cannot be fixed.
If the user prefers to use AC power instead of the battery, please be advised to remove the battery pack whilst using the AC adaptor to avoid decreasing the batteries lifespan. It is highly recommended not to leave a charged battery dormant for a long period of time, even if you use AC power most of the time, still use the battery periodically to keep it in good working order. The user should charge and discharge the battery at least once a month, or more frequently if possible, about 2 to 4 hours while the system is off. Unplug the AC adaptor when the machine is not in use to prevent over-charging. If you do not plan to use the battery for a month or more, it is highly recommended to store the battery in a clean, cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, excessive heat or cold and away from metallic objects. Keep the battery away from any open flame or fire or any other source of excessive heat. Do not incinerate. Exposure of the battery to extreme heat can result in an explosion which can cause serious harm and damage. Do not short-circuit. A short-circuit may cause severe and irreparable damage to the battery. Do not drop, hit or otherwise abuse the battery in any way as this may result in the exposure of the cells’ contents which are extremely corrosive. You must avoid setting the battery charger in the following places:
- Any place with high humidity and/or high temperatures
- Places with strong vibrations
- Dusty places
Use this excellent software to test your laptop battery’s lifespan; this is a totally free service. Software: Battery Easter Pro V2.70 OS Support: WINDOWS XP / VISTA / 7 File Size: 713KB License: Free Download Link: http://www.batteryeater.com/download.html Battery Eater is a testing tool intended to reveal the potential of a laptop battery pack. Battery Eater can measure the minimum operating time of a laptop (when all power-saving options are disabled) under conditions close to the maximum workload (classic mode). You should be aware though; that such conditions rarely occur during ordinary use of a laptop and should be regarded as reflecting the minimum time the laptop can work on battery power alone. Battery Eater will show the result closest to the maximum possible in “Idle” mode and in the “Reader’s Test” mode (when all power-saving options are fully enabled).
COST OF REPAIR
Battery repacking from R600 Battery replacement from R600
The motherboard design adopted by laptop manufacturers is extremely delicate and fragile and can be very easily damaged by heat and/or impact to the unit, light impact or moderate temperatures may affect system stability whereas serious impact or high temperatures may cause severe and irreparable failure of the laptop. Repairing a laptop motherboard is a very complex, complicated process and can be both costly and time-consuming. Technicians usually use specialised machinery for welding the chips, replacing damaged chips, conductors or PCBs. If the motherboard can not be repaired due to problems such as fracturing, burnt out or melted chips, the complete motherboard will have to be replaced. To test this, plug in the AC adaptor and check if the charging light is lit, if it is lit then the motherboard might be repairable, if not, the motherboard may be damaged beyond repair.
If the laptop system turns on and displays a blue screen, suddenly restarts or remains inactive after being switched on, these could be indications of over-heating or moisture in the machine which could cause oxidisation on the motherboard or it might be an indication that some of the chips on the board are malfunctioning.
To monitor the operation of a laptop, the user may want to try “Speedfan 4.37” which is system monitoring software. This software will not only display the actual temperature of the CPU, VGA GPU, Hard Drive and Motherboard in operation, but also captures detailed information on rotation rate of a fan and the applicable voltage, etc. It will notify the user in advance if the laptop is over-heating or of any other symptoms of errors. Software: SPEEDFAN 4.37 OS Support: WINDOWS XP/VISTA File Size: 1.75MB License: Free Download Link: http://www.almico.com/sfdownload.php
COST OF REPAIR
Chip replacement from R600 Motherboard replacement from R2000
The keyboard of a laptop is used frequently for daily data input and is very much more fragile than a desktop PC keyboard therefore it will suffer substantially more wear and tear and will develop issues more frequently and easily.
Keyboard malfunctioning or turning off
The circuit board underneath the keyboard has come into contact with dust and/or water which will obstruct the flow of electric current to the keyboard. Typing to vigorously or abusively will also cause the keyboard to fail. As we cannot only maintain any single key, it makes little difference whether it’s a single key fault or the keyboard as a whole unit, the entire unit will need to be replaced. The same will apply to the track-point function.
Food and drink both pose substantial risk to the functionality of your laptop. Do not eat or drink anything over your laptop as even small crumbs dropping into the keyboard area and spaces between the keys may cause the unit to fail. If water is accidentally poured or spilled onto the keyboard the user should power the laptop down immediately, remove the battery and unplug the AC adaptor. Use a soft dry cloth or tissue paper to absorb water on the surface of the keyboard and then send the machine to a qualified technician straight away for immediate repair. Remember to never use a hair dryer to blow the keyboard or body of the laptop as this may cause the keyboard plastic to be permanently heated and/or damaged.
Cleaning will restore the keyboard to like new and should result in better performance. Laptop keyboards generally do not wear out but they can malfunction. There are several reasons why the keys may start to stick, for example: spilled sugary drinks, normal wearing off of the factory lubrication used, weakening of the tiny rubber boots which give each of the keys the spring action back to the normal position and contamination by dust and hair. The keyboard and body of a laptop both have many gaps and small holes essential for dissipating heat, these gaps and holes can easily accumulate dust and limit the efficiency of the heat dissipation which can cause system instability. In order to prevent this situation from occurring the user should regularly clean the surface of the keyboard as well as all the gaps and small holes where heat flows out from by using a small air cleaner or something similar to blow away any dust or other contaminants. Proper cleaning and lubrication where necessary will completely solve these sorts of issues and return the keyboard to perfect functionality.
When a problem is detected with the keyboard, try using the following software application, PASSMARK Keyboard Test, to inspect the keyboard thoroughly and accurately. User will press one key at a time; a green light will be shown on the corresponding key on the virtual keypad displayed on the screen through the software interface. A red light will be shown if a certain key is not working correctly. Software: PASSMARK Keyboard Test v3.0 OS Support: WINDOWS XP/VISTA File Size: 1.6MB License: USD$24 Download Link: http://www.passmark.com/products/keytest.htm
COST OF REPAIR
Keyboard replacement from R200
Usage of Battery
Thank you very much for your trust and support in using Laptop Accessories batteries. Please read the following very carefully before using your new battery, we will show you how to use and maintain the batteries properly to ensure maximum efficiency and productivity. Batteries are consumable electronic products with a limited lifespan, but with correct usage, proper charging and discharging cycles as well as good storage will significantly prolong the lifespan of your battery. For the very first charge, please allow the battery to be fully charged for 5 hours. Do not be surprised if your battery meter in Windows only shows a maximum of 50% during the first 5 hour charge, this is to be expected and nothing is wrong with the battery. After consecutive charge and discharge cycles the battery indicator in Windows will gradually increase.
CALIBRATING YOUR COMPUTER’S BATTERY FOR BEST PERFORMANCE:
Laptop batteries contain a PCB inside the battery which provides an estimate of the amount of energy the battery contains as it charges and discharges. Batteries need to be recalibrated periodically to keep these estimates accurate in the Windows operating system. This procedure should be performed regularly, at least once a month.
- Set the correct settings for “Power” option: Click the right key of your mouse in an open space of the desktop, select “Properties” – “Screen Saver”– “Power Schemes” – “Portable”, and “When computer is” “Running on batteries”, tick “Never” for all options. Under “Alarm” option, don’t tick“Low Battery Alarm” and “Critical Battery Alarm” functions, and then choose “Apply” and “OK” to save the settings.
- Disconnect the AC adaptor and use your battery until 5% battery power remains.
- Plug the AC adaptor back into the machine and fully charge the battery back up to 100%. Upon initial use (or after a prolonged period of storage) the battery may require three to four charge/discharge cycles before achieving maximum performance again. This charging process should take at least 10 hours if done correctly.
CAUTION: Never discharge the battery to completely flat, 0%, this will cause the internal PCB of the battery to switch off the circuits and the battery will thereafter be rendered useless. TIP: Run the battery without the AC adaptor at least once a week to maintain the internal integrity of the battery and ensure peak performance and ensure that the battery stays in good working condition. The more frequently this is done the better. An absolute minimum of one full charge/discharge cycle should be done every month; failure to do so may result in permanent and irreparable damage to your battery.
Batteries may become damaged if stored for prolonged periods of time with a closed circuit. If the battery will not be used for a month or longer, it is recommended that it be removed from the device, 60% – 80% charged and stored in a cool, dry and clean place. A charged battery will eventually lose its charge and become damaged internally if left unused. It may therefore be necessary to recharge the battery after a certain period. It is highly recommended that the battery be used at least once a month to ensure that the battery remains in good condition.
- Do not short-circuit. A short-circuit may cause severe, irreparable damage to the battery.
- Do not drop, hit or otherwise abuse the battery as this may result in exposure of the cells’ contents which are highly corrosive.
- Do not expose the battery to any source of heat, moisture or rain.
- Keep the battery away from open flames, fire or any other source of extreme heat.
- Do not incinerate. Exposure of the battery to extreme heat may result in an explosion.
- Do not try to disassemble, repair or otherwise change the battery pack contents which may cause over-heating or fire. Corrosive alkaline solutions or other electrolyte leakages may result in fire or personal injury or death.
- Do not puncture the battery with any sharp objects.
HOW TO PROLONG YOUR BATTERY’S LIFESPAN
(This article is extracted from BATTERY UNIVERSITY)
WHAT CAUSES LITHIUM-ION TO AGE?
The lithium-ion battery works on ion movement between the positive and negative electrodes. In theory, such a mechanism should work forever, but shelf life, cycling and temperature affect the performance. Because batteries are used under many demanding environmental conditions, manufacturers take a conservative approach and specify a battery life of between 300 and 500 charge/discharge cycles. Life cycle testing is easy to measure and is well understood by the user. Some organisations also add a date stamp of three to five years; however, this method is less reliable because it does not account for the type of usage. Figure 1 illustrates the capacity drop of 11 Li-polymer batteries that have been cycled in a Cadex laboratory. The 1500mAh pouch of cells were first charged to 4.2V/cell at 1C rate (1500mA) and allowed to saturate to 0.05C (75mA) as part of the full charge procedure. The batteries were then discharged from 1500mA to 3.0V/cell and the cycle was repeated.
Figure 1: Capacity drop as part of cycling.
A pool of new 1500mA Li-ion batteries for smart phone instead is tested on a Cadex C7400 battery analyser. All 11 pouch packs show a starting capacity of 88-94 percent and decreased in capacity to 73-84 percent after 250 full charge/discharge cycles (2010).
COURTESY OF CADEX
Designed for a smart phone, the battery packs were already a few months old at the time of testing and none of the batteries made it to 100 percent. It is common to see lower than specified capacities and shelf life may have contributed to this. Manufacturers tend to overrate their batteries as they know that very few customers will complain. In our test, the expected capacity loss was uniform over the 250 cycles. All sample batteries performed as expected. Similar to a mechanical device that wears out faster with heavy use, so does the depth of discharge (DoD) determine the cycle count. The smaller the depth of discharge, the longer the battery will last. If it all possible, avoid frequent full discharges and charge the battery more often between uses. If full discharge cannot be avoided, try utilising a larger battery. Partial discharge of Li-Ion is fine; there is no memory and the battery does not need periodic full discharge cycles other than to calibrate the fuel gauge on a smart battery. Table 2 compares the number of charge/discharge cycles a battery can deliver at various DoD levels before the lithium-ion is worn out. We assume end of life when the battery capacity drops below 70 percent. This is an arbitrary threshold that is application based. Besides selecting the best-suited voltage thresholds, it is also important that the battery does not stay in the high-voltage stage for an extended period of time and is allowed to drop after full charge has been reached.
Table 2: Cycle Life and Depth of Discharge
A partial discharge reduces stress on the battery and prolongs the batteries lifespan. Elevated temperature and high currents also affect cycle life. Specifying battery life by the number of charge/discharge cycles is not complete by itself; equally if not more important are temperature conditions and charging voltages. Lithium-Ion suffers stress when exposed to heat and kept at a high charge voltage. Elevated temperature is anything that reaches above 30°C (86°F) and high voltage is anything higher than 4.1V/cell. When estimating longevity, these conditions are difficult to assess because the battery state is in constant flux and so is the temperature in which it operates. Exposing the battery to high temperatures and being at a full state-of-charge for an extended time can be even more damaging than cycling. Manufacturers generally do not like to talk about these environmental conditions and release information only in confidence when requested to do so. In this essay we do not depend on the manufacturer’s specifications alone but also listen to the comments of users. BatteryUniversity.com is an excellent sounding board to connect with the public and learn about reality. This approach might be unscientific, but it is genuine. When the critical mass speaks, the manufacturers listen. The voice of the multitude is in some ways stronger than laboratory tests performed in sheltered environments. Let’s look at real-life situations and examine what stress a lithium-ion battery encounters. Most packs last three to five years, less if exposed to high heat and if kept at a full charge. Table 3 illustrates capacity loss as a function of temperature and state-of-charge. One can clearly see the performance drop of recoverable capacity caused by environmental conditions and not cycling. The worst condition is keeping a fully charged battery at elevated temperatures, which is the case when running a laptop on the power grid. Under these circumstances the battery will typically last for about two years, whether cycled or not. The battery pack does not die suddenly but will produce decreasing runtimes as part of aging.
|Battery Temperature||Permanent capacity loss when stored at 40% state-of-charge
(recommended storage charge level)
|Permanent capacity loss when stored at 100% state-of-charge
(typical user charge level)
|0°C||2% loss in 1 year; 98% remaining||6% loss in 1 year; 94% remaining|
|25°C||4% loss in 1 year; 96% remaining||20% loss in 1 year; 80% remaining|
|40°C||15% loss in 1 year; 85% remaining||35% loss in 1 year; 65% remaining|
|60°C||25% loss in 1 year 75%; remaining||40% loss in 3 months|
Table 3: Permanent Capacity Loss of Lithium-Ion as a Function of Temperature and Charge Level.
High charge levels and elevated temperatures hasten permanent capacity loss. Newer designs may show improved results. Batteries are also exposed to elevated temperatures when charging with wireless chargers. The energy transfer from a charging mat to the portable device is 70 to 80 percent and the remaining 20 to 30 percent is lost primarily as heat. Placing a cellular phone on the heat generating charging mat stresses the battery more than if charged with a standard AC adaptor. Keep in mind that the mat will cool down once the battery is fully charged. Read more here: Charging without wires. Equally stressful is leaving the battery in a hot car, especially if exposed to direct sunlight. When not in use, store the battery in a cool, dry place. For long-term storage, manufacturers recommend a 40 percent state-of-charge. This allows for some self-discharge while still retaining sufficient charge to keep the protection circuit active. Finding the ideal state-of-charge is not easy; this would require a discharge unit with an appropriate cut-off. Users should not worry too much about the state-of-charge; a cool, dry storage area is more important. The voltage level to which the cells are charged also plays an important role in extending longevity. For safety reasons, most lithium-ion cannot exceed 4.20V/cell. While a higher voltage would boost capacity, over-voltage shortens service life. Figure 4 demonstrates the increased capacity but shorter cycle life if Li-ion were allowed to exceed the 4.20V/cell limit. At 4.35V, the capacity would increase by 10 to 15 percent, but the cycle count would be decreased by half. More critical than the extra capacity is reduced safety, which would be the direct result of a higher charge voltage.
Figure 4: Effects on cycle life at elevated charge voltages
Higher charge voltages boost capacity but lower cycle life and compromise safety. Source: Choi et al. (2002) Chargers for cellular phones, laptops and digital cameras bring the Li-ion battery to 4.20V/cell. This allows for maximum runtime and the consumer wants nothing less than optimal use of the battery capacity. The industry, on the other hand, is more concerned with longevity and prefers lower voltage thresholds. Satellites and electric vehicles are examples where longevity is important. We have limited information by how much lower charge voltages prolong battery life; this depends on many conditions, as we have learned. What we do know, however, is the capacities. At a charge to 4.1V/cell, the battery holds a capacity that is about 10 percent less than going all the way to 4.20V/cell. In terms of optimal longevity, a charge voltage of 3.92V/cell works best but the capacity would be low. We have limited information by how much lower charge voltages prolong battery life; this depends on many conditions, as we have learned. What we do know, however, is the capacities. At a charge to 4.1V/cell, the battery holds a capacity that is about 10 percent less than going all the way to 4.20V/cell. In terms of optimal longevity, a charge voltage of 3.92V/cell works best but the capacity would be low. The voltage threshold of commercial chargers cannot be charged and making it adjustable would have advantages, especially for laptops as a means of prolonging battery life. When running on extended AC mode, the user would select the “Long Life” mode and the battery would charge to only, say, 4.05V/cell. This would get a capacity of about 80 percent. Before travelling, the user would apply the “Full Charge Mode” to bring the charge to 4.2-V/cell. This saturation charge would take about an hour and would fill the battery to 100 percent capacity. Realising the stress on the battery, some laptop and cellular phone manufacturers choose an end-of-charge voltage that is less than 4.20V/cell. A slightly larger pack compensates for the reduced runtime. Another option to extend battery life is removing the pack from the laptop when running off the power grid. The Consumer Product Safety Commission advises the public to do this out of concern for overheating and possible fire. Removing the battery has the disadvantage of losing unsaved work upon power failure. Heat build up is always a concern and running a laptop in bed or on a pillow may contribute to this by restricting airflow. Not only will heat stress electronic components, elevated temperature causes the electrodes in the battery to react with the electrolyte and this will permanently lower the batteries capacity. Placing a ruler or other object under the laptop to increase floor clearance improves airflow and circulation around the enclosure and keeps the unit cooler. The question is often asked: Should I disconnect my laptop from the power grid when not in use? Under normal circumstances this should not be necessary because once the lithium-ion battery is full; a correctly functioning charger will discontinue the charge and will only engage when the battery voltage drops to a lower level. Most users do not remove the AC power and I like to believe that this practice is safe. Everyone wants to keep the battery as long as possible and use it in a way that is least stressful. This is not always feasible. Sometimes we need to run the battery in environments that are not conducive to optimal service life. As a doctor cannot predict how long a person will live based on diet and activity alone, battery life may vary similarly and can always be cut short by an unexpected failure. Batteries and humans share the same volatility. To get a better understanding of what causes irreversible capacity loss in Lio-ion batteries, several research laboratories are performing forensic tests. Scientists dissected failed batteries to find suspected problem areas on the electrodes. Examining an unrolled 1.5 meter-long strip (5 feet) of metal tape coated with oxide reveals that the finely structured nano-materials have coarsened. Further studies have revealed that the lithium ions responsible for shuttling the electric charge between the electrodes had diminished on the cathode and had permanently settled on the anode. This results in the cathode having a lower lithium concentration than a new example, a phenomenon that is irreversible. Knowing the reason for such capacity loss might enable battery manufacturers to produce future batteries with longer life spans.
Power loss through circuit protection.
Besides common aging, a Li-ion battery can also fail because of undercharge. This occurs if a Li-ion pack is stored in a discharged state. Self-discharge gradually lowers the voltage of the already discharged battery and the protection circuit cuts off between 2.20 and 2.90V/cell. Some chargers and battery analysers (including those from Cadex) provide a wake-up feature, or “boost”, to re-energise and recharge these seemingly dead Li-ion batteries.
The following instructional video demonstrations are just for your own interest and general knowledge. Laptop Accessories will not be held responsible or liable in any way whatsoever due to possible damage to the laptop, personal injury and/or death caused as a result of self-installation learnt from these instructional videos.
HOW TO REPLACE SCREEN
HOW TO REPLACE KEYBOARD